Using ammonia as a sustainable fuel
C. Zamfirescu, I. Dincer
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ont., Canada L1H 7K4 ~ available since 17 July 2008
- Ammonia is the least expensive fuel in terms of $ GJ
- In terms of GJm ammonia becomes the third, after gasoline and LPG.
- There is an advantage of by-product refrigeration, 7.2% fromHHV, which reduces the costs and maintenance.
- Ammonia is the cheapest fuel per 100 km driving range as a reasonable and practical assumption.
- Some additional advantages of ammonia are commercial availability and viability, global distribution network, easy handling experience, etc., while its toxicity may be seen as a challenge.
- This can easily be overcome with the current control and storage
Comparison of ammonia with other fuels and hydrogen
|Fuel/storage||P (bar)||Density (kgm-3)||HHV (MJ kg-1)||Energy density
|Gasoline, C8H18/liquid tank||1||736||46.7||34.4||1000||29.1|
|CNG, CH4/integrated storage system||250||188||55.5||10.4||400||38.3|
|LPG, C3H8/presurized tank||14||388||48.9||19.0||542||28.5|
|Methanol, CH3OH/liquid tank||1||749||15.2||11.4||693||60.9|
|Hydrogen, H2/metal hydrides||14||25||142||3.6||125||35.2|
|Ammonia, NH3/metal amines||1||610||17.1||10.4||183||17.5|
Performance of ammonia power systems and of other systems
|Fuel/system||εr (%)||$ 100km-1||Range (km)|
|Methanol/reforming + fuel-cell||33||9.22||376|
|H2 metal hydrides/fuel-cell||40||4.40||142|
|NH3/Th decomp, ICE||28||2.38||380|
|NH3/Th decomp Sep, ICE||31||2.15||420|
|NH3/Th. decomp + Sep, FC||46||1.45||624|