NH3 as a fuel – Research

Using ammonia as a sustainable fuel

C. Zamfirescu, I. Dincer
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ont., Canada L1H 7K4  ~ available since 17 July 2008

Link to complete article here 

 Conclusions

  • Ammonia is the least expensive fuel in terms of $ GJ
  • In terms of GJm ammonia becomes the third, after gasoline and LPG.
  • There is an advantage of by-product refrigeration, 7.2% fromHHV, which reduces the costs and maintenance.
  • Ammonia is the cheapest fuel per 100 km driving range as a reasonable and practical assumption.
  • Some additional advantages of ammonia are commercial availability and viability, global distribution network, easy handling experience, etc., while its toxicity may be seen as a challenge.
  • This can easily be overcome with the current control and storage
    technologies. 

Comparison of ammonia with other fuels and hydrogen

Fuel/storage P (bar) Density (kgm-3) HHV (MJ kg-1) Energy density
(GJm-3)
Specific volumetric
cost ($m-3)
Specific energetic
cost ($GJ-1)
Gasoline, C8H18/liquid tank 1 736 46.7 34.4 1000 29.1
CNG, CH4/integrated storage system 250 188 55.5 10.4 400 38.3
LPG, C3H8/presurized tank 14  388 48.9  19.0 542 28.5
Methanol, CH3OH/liquid tank 749 15.2 11.4 693 60.9
Hydrogen, H2/metal hydrides 14 25 142 3.6 125 35.2
Ammonia/pressurized tank 10  603 22.5 13.6 181 13.3
Ammonia, NH3/metal amines 1 610  17.1 10.4 183 17.5

         
        

 Performance of ammonia power systems and of other systems

Fuel/system εr (%) $ 100km-1 Range (km)
Gasoline/ICE 24 6.06 825
CNG/ICE 28 6.84 292
LPG/ICE 28  5.10 531
Methanol/reforming + fuel-cell 33 9.22  376
H2 metal hydrides/fuel-cell 40 4.40 142
NH3/direct ICE 44  1.57 592
NH3/Th decomp, ICE 28  2.38 380
NH3/Th decomp Sep, ICE 31  2.15 420
NH3/direct FC 44  1.52 597
NH3/Th. decomp + Sep, FC 46 1.45 624
NH3/electrolysis 20  3.33 271