Some advantages of ammonia with respect to hydrogen are:
- less expensive cost per unit of stored energy
- higher volumetric energy density that is comparable with that of gasoline, easier production, handling and distribution
- better commercial viability
- refrigeration effect of ammonia
- NH3 is safe, Hydrogen is dangerous
The study suggested that the most efficient system is based on fuel-cells which provide simultaneously power, heating and cooling and its only exhaust consists of water and nitrogen.
- If the cooling effect is taken into consideration, the system’s effectiveness reaches 46% implying that a medium size car ranges over 500 km with 50 l fuel at a cost below $2 per 100 km.
- The cooling power represents about 7.2% from the engine power, being thus a valuable side benefit of ammonia’s presence on-board.